Industries that make industrial emissions to air, land and water are regulated under strict international laws. They need emission monitoring to protect health and the environment. Businesses either monitor their industrial emission all the time, known as continuous monitoring, or at certain times. This is known as spot testing or periodic monitoring. Both need to meet strict quality requirements. Who should carry it out? Industrial emission monitoring from chimney stacks (or stack monitoring / source testing) should only be carried out by accredited laboratories. Industrial companies can use certified employees. Continuous air quality monitoring means that the environment and human health is being protected. Portable equipment can be used to monitor pollution from industrial chimney stacks, landfill sites or leaking pipes. Soil sample analysis tells us if local soil contains potentially toxic substances, such as chemicals and/or metals. Continuous water monitoring also has to reach an acceptable standard. Again, this ensures that one of the most important precious commodities for life and health is clean and safe. Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) monitor flue gas for oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions). This provides information for combustion control in industrial settings. Facilities employ the use of CEMS to continuously collect, record and report the required emissions data. A system might consist of a sample probe, filter, umbilical sample line, gas conditioning system, calibration gas system, and a series of gas analysers. A list of typical gases would be sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, particulate matter, mercury, volatile organic compounds, and oxygen. The emissions monitor also measure air flow, flue gas opacity and moisture.