Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes for treating wastewater produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. This wastewater may have been caused by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities. After treatment, the effluent may be released to a sanitary sewer or a surface water in the environment.
Most industries produce wastewater. Efforts have been focussed on minimising it or to recycle treated wastewater within the production process.
Different types of wastewater treatment and the end-uses
Wastewater treatment removes contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants.
The goal is to have an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (often farm fertiliser).
End-uses may be drinking water, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment suppliers provide equipment that removes contaminants or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.
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